When God was “the Lord” the spirit of God was called “the spirit.” Jesus was called “the Spirit” from the Old Testament.
How do we know for sure that the verses describing the Spirit of Christ as “the Spirit” before the Day of Pentecost are really describing the Spirit of Christ and not the spirit of God? Very fortunately, Paul explains all of them in his Epistles.
“The spirit” referring to the spirit of God
Mat 4:1 Then was Jesus led up of the spirit into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil.
Mar 1:10 And straightway coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens rent asunder, and the spirit as a dove descending upon him:
Mar 1:12 And straightway the spirit driveth him forth into the wilderness.
Luk 2:27 And he came in the spirit into the temple: and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, that they might do concerning him after the custom of the law,
Luk 4:1 And Jesus, full of the holy spirit, returned from the Jordan, and was led in the Spirit in the wilderness
Luk 4:14 And Jesus returned in the power of the spirit into Galilee: and a fame went out concerning him through all the region round about.
Joh 1:32 And John bare witness, saying, I have beheld the spirit descending as a dove out of heaven; and it abode upon him.
Joh 1:33 And I knew him not: but he that sent me to baptize in water, he said unto me, Upon whomsoever thou shalt see the spirit descending, and abiding upon him, the same is he that baptizeth in the holy spirit.
Rom 15:19 in the power of signs and wonders, in the power of the holy spirit; so that from Jerusalem, and round about even unto Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ;
1Jn 5:7-8 And it is the spirit that beareth witness, because the spirit is the truth. For there are three who bear witness, the spirit, and the water, and the blood: and the three agree in one. (Three that testified that Jesus is the Son of God, see 1 John 4:15, 5:5, and John 1:32-34)
“The Spirit” referring to the Spirit of Christ (71 Verses)
We have only included those with the definite article, or otherwise identified as the Spirit of Christ. Here, we quote from the American Standard Version.
Mat 5:3 Blessed are the poor in the spirit (τῷ πνεύματι,) for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
Mat 26:41 Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation: the spirit indeed (τὸ μὲν πνεῦμα) is willing, but the flesh is weak.
Mar 14:38 Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation: the spirit indeed (τὸ μὲν πνεῦμα) is willing, but the flesh is weak.
Joh 3:5-6 Jesus answered, “Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except one be born of water and [the] spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit (ἐκ τοῦ Πνεύματος).” (There are many interpretations of the meaning of “spirit” that is born of the Spirit of Christ, “a new creation” is the general meaning.)
Joh 3:8 The wind bloweth where it will, and thou hearest the voice thereof, but knowest not whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος).
Joh 3:34 For He whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God: for he giveth not the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) by measure. (explained in the verse below)
Joh 6:63 It is the spirit (τὸ πνεῦμά) that giveth life; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I have spoken unto you are spirit, and are life. (cf 1 Corinthians 15:45)
Joh 7:39 But this spake he of the Spirit (τοῦ Πνεύματος), which they that believed on him were to receive: for [the] spirit was not yet given; because Jesus was not yet glorified.
Joh 11:33 When Jesus therefore saw her weeping, and the Jews also weeping who came with her, he groaned in the spirit (τῷ πνεύματι), and was troubled, (cf Romans 8:26)
Joh 13:21 When Jesus had thus said, he was troubled in the spirit (τῷ πνεύματι), and testified, and said, “Verily, verily, I say unto you, that one of you shall betray me.”
Act 2:4 And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) gave them utterance.
Act 5:9 But Peter said unto her, How is it that ye have agreed together to try the Spirit of the Lord (τὸ Πνεῦμα Κυρίου)? behold, the feet of them that have buried thy husband are at the door, and they shall carry thee out.
Act 8:29 And the Spirit (τὸ Πνεῦμα) said unto Philip, Go near, and join thyself to this chariot.
Act 8:39 And when they came up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord (πνεῦμα Κυρίου) caught away Philip; and the eunuch saw him no more, for he went on his way rejoicing.
Act 10:19 And while Peter thought on the vision, the Spirit (τὸ Πνεῦμα) said unto him, Behold, three men seek thee.
Act 11:12 And the Spirit (τὸ Πνεῦμά) bade me go with them, making no distinction. And these six brethren also accompanied me; and we entered into the man’s house:
Act 11:28 And there stood up one of them named Agabus, and signified by the Spirit (τοῦ Πνεύματος) that there should be a great famine over all the world: which came to pass in the days of Claudius.
Act 16:7 and when they were come over against Mysia, they assayed to go into Bithynia; and the Spirit of Jesus (τὸ πνεῦμα Ἰησοῦ·) suffered them not;
Act 19:21 Now after these things were ended, Paul purposed in the spirit (τῷ πνεύματι), when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, After I have been there, I must also see Rome.
Act 20:22 And now, behold, I go bound in the spirit (τῷ πνεύματι) unto Jerusalem, not knowing the things that shall befall me there:
Act 21:4 And having found the disciples, we tarried there seven days: and these said to Paul through the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος), that he should not set foot in Jerusalem.
Rom 8:2 For the law of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος) of life in Christ Jesus made me free from the law of sin and of death.
Rom 8:5 For they that are after the flesh mind the things of the flesh; but they that are after the Spirit the things of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος).
Rom 8:6 For the mind of the flesh is death; but the mind of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος) is life and peace: (cf Rom 8:27; 1 Cor 2:16)
Rom 8:9 But ye are not in the flesh but in [the] Spirit (ἐν πνεύματι), if so be that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you. But if any man hath not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his.
Rom 8:10 And if Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin; but the spirit (τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα) is life because of righteousness.
Rom 8:15 For ye received not the spirit of bondage again unto fear; but ye received the spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father.
Rom 8:16 The Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) himself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are children of God:
Rom 8:23 And not only so, but ourselves also, who have the first-fruits of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for our adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body.
Rom 8:26 And in like manner the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) also helpeth our infirmity: for we know not how to pray as we ought; but the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) himself maketh intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered;
Rom 8:27 and he that searcheth the hearts knoweth what is the mind of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος), because he maketh intercession for the saints according to the will of God.
Rom 15:30 Now I beseech you, brethren, by our Lord Jesus Christ, and by the love of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος), that ye strive together with me in your prayers to God for me;
1Cor. 2:10 ¶ But unto us God revealed them through the Spirit (διὰ τοῦ πνεύματος) : for the Spirit (τὸ γὰρ πνεῦμα) searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God.
1Co 5:3 For I verily, being absent in body but present in spirit (τῷ πνεύματι), have already as though I were present judged him that hath so wrought this thing,
1Cor. 12:7 But to each one is given the manifestation of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος) to profit withal.
1Cor. 12:8 For to one is given through the Spirit ( διὰ τοῦ πνεύματος) the word of wisdom; and to another the word of knowledge, according to the same Spirit:
1Co 14:14 For if I pray in a tongue, my spirit (τὸ πνεῦμά) prayeth, but my understanding is unfruitful. (The Spirit prays, not my spirit prays)
1Co 14:15 What is it then? I will pray with the spirit (τῷ πνεύματι) and I will pray with the understanding also: I will sing with the spirit (τῷ πνεύματι) and I will sing with the understanding also.
1Co 15:45 So also it is written, The first man Adam became a living soul. The last Adam became a life-giving spirit.
2Co 1:22 who also sealed us, and gave us the earnest of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος) in our hearts.
2Co 3:6 who also made us sufficient as ministers of a new covenant; not of the letter, but of the spirit: for the letter killeth, but the spirit (τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα) giveth life.
2Co 3:8 how shall not rather the ministration of the spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος) be with glory?
2Co 3:17 Now the Lord is the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμά): and where the Spirit of the Lord (τὸ πνεῦμα κυρίου) is, there is liberty.
2Co 3:18 But we all, with unveiled face beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are transformed into the same image from glory to glory, even as from the Lord the Spirit (κυρίου πνεύματος).
2Co 5:5 Now he that wrought us for this very thing is God, who gave unto us the earnest of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος).
Gal 3:2 This only would I learn from you, Received ye the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?
Gal 3:5 He therefore that supplieth to you the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα), and worketh miracles among you, doeth he it by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?
Gal 3:14 that upon the Gentiles might come the blessing of Abraham in Christ Jesus; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος) through faith.
Gal 4:6 And because ye are sons, God sent forth the Spirit of his Son (τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ) into our hearts, crying, Abba, Father.
Gal 5:17 For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος), and the Spirit (τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα) against the flesh; for these are contrary the one to the other; that ye may not do the things that ye would.
Gal 5:22 But the fruit of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματός) is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, kindness, goodness, faithfulness,
Gal 6:8 For he that soweth unto his own flesh shall of the flesh reap corruption; but he that soweth unto the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) shall of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος) reap eternal life.
Eph 1:13 in whom ye also, having heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your salvation—in whom, having also believed, ye were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise, (τῷ πνεύματι τῆς ἐπαγγελίας τῷ ἁγίῳ) – The Spirit of Promise, the Holy One (see Chapter 25)
Eph 2:18 for through him we both have our access in one Spirit (ἐν ἑνὶ πνεύματι) unto the Father.
Eph 4:3 giving diligence to keep the unity of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος) in the bond of peace.
Eph 6:17 And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, (τοῦ πνεύματος), which is the word of God:
Php 1:19 For I know that this shall turn out to my salvation, through your supplication and the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ,
Col 2:5 For though I am absent in the flesh, yet am I with you in the spirit (τῷ πνεύματι), joying and beholding your order, and the stedfastness of your faith in Christ.
1Th 4:8 Therefore he that rejecteth, rejecteth not man, but God, who giveth his Holy Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα αὐτοῦ τὸ ἅγιον). unto you. Lit. “His Spirit, the Holy One” see Psalms
1Th 5:19 Quench not the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα)
1Ti 4:1 But the Spirit (Τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα) saith expressly, that in later times some shall fall away from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits and doctrines of demons,
1Pe 1:11 searching what time or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did point unto, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glories that should follow them.
Rev 2:7 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) saith to the churches. To him that overcometh, to him will I give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the Paradise of God.
Rev 2:11 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) saith to the churches. He that overcometh shall not be hurt of the second death.
Rev 2:17 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) saith to the churches. To him that overcometh, to him will I give of the hidden manna, and I will give him a white stone, and upon the stone a new name written, which no one knoweth but he that receiveth it.
Rev 2:29 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) saith to the churches.
Rev 3:6 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) saith to the churches.
Rev 3:13 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) saith to the churches.
Rev 3:22 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) saith to the churches.
Rev 14:13 And I heard a voice from heaven saying, Write, Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord from henceforth: yea, saith the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα), that they may rest from their labors; for their works follow with them.
Rev 22:17 And the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) and the bride say, Come. And he that heareth, let him say, Come. And he that is athirst, let him come: he that will, let him take the water of life freely.