Appendix 5 – The Spirit of God and the Spirit of Christ in the New Testament

Here, we show all verses describing the Spirit God and the Spirit of Christ in the New Testament, which we group into five categories:

The holy spirit

There are three phrases that identify the holy spirit in Greek.

The most form common is “holy spirit” without the article. It appears 53 times, first in Matthew 1:18, where it refers to Christ.

The next form is “the holy spirit.” In Matthew 28:19, Jesus told His disciples to baptize in the Name of the Father, and the Son, and the holy spirit. Here, the article was used to signify that there was only one holy spirit after the Day of Pentecost. The Spirit of Christ was no longer called “holy spirit.” This form is used 8 times, all in the Genitive.

The third expression comes from the Greek Septuagint. It appears 27 times, first in Matthew 12:32.

Expression Sample Number
Of Uses
Referring to Christ
Πνεύματος ῾Αγίου

“holy spirit”

Mat 1:18 53 Mat 1:18; Luke 1:15; Luke 1:35; Luke 1:41; Luke 1:67; Luke 11:13; 2Pet 1:21; John 20:22
τοῦ ῾Αγίου Πνεύματος

“The holy spirit”

Mat 28:19 8
τοῦ Πνεύματος τοῦ ῾Αγίου

“the spirit, the holy (one)”

Mat 12:32 27 Mark 12:36; Luke 2:26; Acts 7:51; Acts 28:25

“The spirit” referring to the Spirit of God

Mat 4:1 Then was Jesus led up of the spirit into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil.

Mar 1:10 And straightway coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens rent asunder, and the spirit as a dove descending upon him:

Mar 1:12 And straightway the spirit driveth him forth into the wilderness.

Luk 2:27 And he came in the spirit into the temple: and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, that they might do concerning him after the custom of the law,

Luk 4:1 And Jesus, full of the holy spirit, returned from the Jordan, and was led in the Spirit in the wilderness

Luk 4:14 And Jesus returned in the power of the spirit into Galilee: and a fame went out concerning him through all the region round about.

Joh 1:32 And John bare witness, saying, I have beheld the spirit descending as a dove out of heaven; and it abode upon him.

Joh 1:33 And I knew him not: but he that sent me to baptize in water, he said unto me, Upon whomsoever thou shalt see the spirit descending, and abiding upon him, the same is he that baptizeth in the holy spirit.

1Jn 5:7-8 And it is the Spirit that beareth witness, because the spirit is the truth. For there are three who bear witness, the spirit, and the water, and the blood: and the three agree in one. (Three that testified that Jesus is the Son of God, see 1 John 4:15, 5:5, and John 1:32-34)

When God was “the Lord” the spirit of God was called “the spirit.” Jesus was called “the Spirit” from the Old Testament.

How do we know for sure that the verses describing the Spirit of Christ as “the Spirit” before the Day of Pentecost are really describing the Spirit of Christ and not the spirit of God? Very fortunately, Paul explains all of them in his Epistles.

References to the holy spirit as “spirit”

The verses below, from the Concordant Literal New Testament, are presented with the permission of the Concordant Publishing Concern, and are a literal translation of the word “spirit” where it appears without the article:

Describing the Spirit of Christ

Mat 1:20 Now at his brooding over these things, lo! a messenger of the Lord appeared to him in a trance, saying, “Joseph, son of David, you may not be afraid to accept Miriam, your wife, for that which is being generated in her is of Holy Spirit. (Literally, “that which is conceived of spirit is holy” γεννηθὲν ἐκ Πνεύματός ἐστιν Ἁγίου, called “the holy one” in Luke 1:35).

Mat 22:43 He is saying to them, “How, then, is David, in spirit, calling Him Lord, saying,

Luk 1:17 And he shall be coming before in His sight in [the] Spirit and power of Elijah, to turn back the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the stubborn to the prudence of the just, to make ready a people formed for the Lord.” (the Greek text omits “the”)

Luk 2:25 And lo! there was a man in Jerusalem, whose name is Simeon. And this man is just and pious, anticipating the consolation of Israel, and Holy Spirit was on him. (Literally, the man was righteous and devout … and spirit was holy on him, καὶ Πνεῦμα ἦν Ἅγιον ἐπ’ αὐτόν)

Describing the spirit of God

Joh 7:39   Now this He said concerning the spirit which those believing in Him were about to get. For not as yet was [holy] spirit given, for Jesus is not as yet glorified. (the earliest manuscripts omit “holy”)

Act 1:5 seeing that John, indeed, baptizes in water, yet you shall be baptized in holy spirit after not many of these days.” (The earliest manuscripts read ἐν πνεύματι βαπτισθήσεσθε ἁγίῳ, “in spirit baptized holy”)

Rom 7:6 Yet now we were exempted from the law, dying in that in which we were retained, so that it is for us to be slaving in newness of spirit and not in oldness of letter.

Rom 8:4 that the just requirement of the law may be fulfilled in us, who are not walking in accord with flesh, but in accord with spirit.

Rom 8:5 For those who are in accord with flesh are disposed to that which is of the flesh, yet those who are in accord with spirit to that which is of the spirit.

Rom 8:9 Yet you are not in flesh, but in spirit, if so be that God’s spirit is making its home in you. Now if anyone has not Christ’s spirit, this one is not His.

1Co 2:4 and my word and my heralding were not with the persuasive words of human wisdom, but with demonstration of spirit and of power.

1Co 2:13 not with words taught by human wisdom by with those taught by [the] spirit, matching spiritual blessings with spirit words. (see vs 14)

1Co 14:2 For he who is speaking in a language is not speaking to men, but to God, for no one is hearing, yet in spirit he is speaking secrets.

Gal 4:29 But even as then, the one generated according to flesh persecuted the one according to spirit, thus also it is now.

Gal 5:5 For we, in spirit, are awaiting the expectation of righteousness by faith.

Gal 5:16 Now I am saying, Walk in spirit, and you should under no circumstances be consummating the lust of the flesh.

Gal 5:18 Now, if you are led by spirit, you are not still under law.

Gal 5:25 If we may be living in spirit, in spirit we may be observing the elements also.

Eph 2:22 in Whom you, also, are being built together for God’s dwelling place, in spirit.

Eph 4:4 one body and one spirit, according as you were called also with one expectation of your calling

Eph 5:18 And be not drunk with wine, in which is profligacy, but be filled full with spirit,

Eph 6:18 During every prayer and petition be praying on every occasion (in spirit being vigilant also for it with all perseverance and petition concerning all the saints,)

Php 1:27 Only be citizens walking worthily of the evangel of Christ, that, whether coming and making your acquaintance, or being absent, I should be hearing of your concerns, that you are standing firm in one spirit, one soul, competing together in the faith of the evangel,

Php 2:1 If, then, there is any consolation in Christ, if any comfort of love, if any communion of spirit, if any compassion and pity,

Col 1:8 who makes evident also to us your love in spirit.

1Ti 3:16 And avowedly great is the secret of devoutness, which was manifested in flesh, justified in spirit, seen by messengers, heralded among the nations, believed in the world, taken up in glory.

2Ti 1:7 for God gives us, not a spirit of timidity, but of power and of love and of sanity.

1Pe 3:18 seeing that Christ also, for our sakes, once died concerning sins, the just for the sake of the unjust, that He may be leading us to God; being put to death, indeed, in flesh, yet vivified in spirit,

1Pe 4:6 For this an evangel is brought to the dead also, that they may be judged, indeed, according to men in flesh, yet should be living according to God, in spirit.

Jud 1:19 These are those who isolate themselves, soulish, not having [the] spirit.

Rev 1:10 I came to be, in spirit, in the Lord’s day, and I hear behind me a voice, loud as a trumpet

Rev 4:2 Now immediately I came to be in spirit, and lo! a throne, located in heaven, and on the throne One sitting.

Rev 17:3 And he carries me away, in spirit, into a wilderness. And I perceived a woman sitting on a scarlet wild beast replete with names of blasphemy, and having seven heads and ten horns.

Rev 21:10 And he carries me away, in spirit, on a mountain, huge and high, and shows me the holy city, Jerusalem, as it is descending out of heaven from God,

Other References to the spirit of God

The spirit of God is described with other terminology in these passages:

“spirit of God”

Mat 3:16; 12:28; Rom 11:14; 15:19; 1 Cor 2:14; 3:16; 6:11; 7:40; 12:3; Phil 3:3; 1 Pet 4:14; 1 Joh 4:2;

“spirit of the Father”

Mat 10:20

“My spirit” (OT Quote)

Mat 12:18; Acts 2:17,18

“The spirit of the Lord” (OT Quote)

Luk 4:18

“The spirit of truth”

Joh 14:17; 15:26; 16:13; 1 Joh 4:6;

“the spirit of Holiness”

Rom 1:4

“the spirit of Him who raised Jesus”

Rom 8:11

“Same spirit”

1 Cor 12:4,8,9,11

“in the one spirit” ἐν τῷ ἑνὶ πνεύματι,

1 Cor 12:9

“in one spirit” ἐν ἑνὶ πνεύματι

1 Cor 12:13; Eph 2:18

“spirit of the living God”

2 Cor 3:3

“one spirit” ἓν πνεῦμα

Eph 4:4

“eternal spirit”

Heb 9:14

“anointing from the Holy One”

1 Joh 2:20

“the spirit whom He has given us” (Acts 2:33)

1 Joh 3:34

“of His spirit” ἐκ τοῦ πνεύματος αὐτοῦ

1 Joh 4:13

“spirit of prophecy”

Rev 19:10

Verses describing the Spirit of Christ as “the Spirit” (71 verses)

We have only included those with the definite article, or otherwise identified as the Spirit of Christ. Here, we quote from the American Standard Version.

Mat 5:3 Blessed are the poor in the Spirit (τῷ πνεύματι,) for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.

Mat 26:41 Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation: the Spirit indeed (τὸ μὲν πνεῦμα) is willing, but the flesh is weak.

Mar 14:38 Watch and pray, that ye enter not into temptation: the Spirit indeed (τὸ μὲν πνεῦμα) is willing, but the flesh is weak.

Luk 2:27 And he came in the Spirit (ἐν τῷ Πνεύματι) into the temple: and when the parents brought in the child Jesus, that they might do concerning him after the custom of the law,

Joh 3:5-6 Jesus answered, “Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except one be born of water and [the] spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit (ἐκ τοῦ Πνεύματος).” (There are many interpretations of the meaning of “spirit” that is born of the Spirit of Christ, “a new creation” is the general meaning.)

Joh 3:8 The wind bloweth where it will, and thou hearest the voice thereof, but knowest not whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος).

Joh 3:34 For He whom God hath sent speaketh the words of God: for he giveth not the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) by measure. (explained in the verse below)

Joh 6:63 It is the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμά) that giveth life; the flesh profiteth nothing: the words that I have spoken unto you are spirit, and are life. (cf 1 Corinthians 15:45)

Joh 7:39 But this spake He of the Spirit (τοῦ Πνεύματος), which they that believed on him were to receive: for [the] spirit was not yet given; because Jesus was not yet glorified.

Joh 11:33 When Jesus therefore saw her weeping, and the Jews also weeping who came with her, he groaned in the Spirit (τῷ πνεύματι), and was troubled, (cf Romans 8:26)

Joh 13:21 When Jesus had thus said, he was troubled in the Spirit (τῷ πνεύματι), and testified, and said, “Verily, verily, I say unto you, that one of you shall betray me.”

Acts 2:4 And they were all filled with the holy spirit, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) gave them utterance.

Act 5:9 But Peter said unto her, How is it that ye have agreed together to try the Spirit of the Lord (τὸ Πνεῦμα Κυρίου)?  behold, the feet of them that have buried thy husband are at the door, and they shall carry thee out.

Act 8:29 And the Spirit (τὸ Πνεῦμα) said unto Philip, Go near, and join thyself to this chariot.

Act 8:39 And when they came up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord (πνεῦμα Κυρίου) caught away Philip; and the eunuch saw him no more, for he went on his way rejoicing.

Act 10:19 And while Peter thought on the vision, the Spirit (τὸ Πνεῦμα) said unto him, Behold, three men seek thee.

Act 11:12 And the Spirit (τὸ Πνεῦμά) bade me go with them, making no distinction. And these six brethren also accompanied me; and we entered into the man’s house:

Act 11:28 And there stood up one of them named Agabus, and signified by the Spirit (τοῦ Πνεύματος) that there should be a great famine over all the world: which came to pass in the days of Claudius.

Act 16:7 and when they were come over against Mysia, they assayed to go into Bithynia; and the Spirit of Jesus (τὸ πνεῦμα Ἰησοῦ·) suffered them not;

Act 19:21 Now after these things were ended, Paul purposed in the Spirit (τῷ πνεύματι), when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, After I have been there, I must also see Rome.

Act 20:22 And now, behold, I go bound in the Spirit (τῷ πνεύματι) unto Jerusalem, not knowing the things that shall befall me there:

Act 21:4 And having found the disciples, we tarried there seven days: and these said to Paul through the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος), that he should not set foot in Jerusalem.

Rom 8:2 For the law of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος) of life in Christ Jesus made me free from the law of sin and of death.

Rom 8:5 For they that are after the flesh mind the things of the flesh; but they that are after the Spirit the things of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος).

Rom 8:6 For the mind of the flesh is death; but the mind of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος) is life and peace: (cf Rom 8:27; 1 Cor 2:16)

Rom 8:9 But ye are not in the flesh but in [the] Spirit (ἐν πνεύματι), if so be that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you. But if any man hath not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his.

Rom 8:10 And if Christ is in you, the body is dead because of sin; but the Spirit (τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα) is life because of righteousness.

Rom 8:15 For ye received not the spirit of bondage again unto fear; but ye received the spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father.

Rom 8:16 The Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) himself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are children of God:

Rom 8:23 And not only so, but ourselves also, who have the first-fruits of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for our adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body.

Rom 8:26 And in like manner the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) also helpeth our infirmity: for we know not how to pray as we ought; but the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) himself maketh intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered;

Rom 8:27 and he that searcheth the hearts knoweth what is the mind of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος), because he maketh intercession for the saints according to the will of God.

Rom 15:30 Now I beseech you, brethren, by our Lord Jesus Christ, and by the love of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος), that ye strive together with me in your prayers to God for me;

1Cor. 2:10 ¶ But unto us God revealed them through the Spirit (διὰ τοῦ πνεύματος) : for the Spirit (τὸ γὰρ πνεῦμα) searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God.

1Cor. 2:12 But we received, not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) which is from God; that we might know the things that were freely given to us of God. (cf. Gal 3:2)

1Co 5:3 For I verily, being absent in body but present in the Spirit (τῷ πνεύματι), have already as though I were present judged him that hath so wrought this thing,

1Cor. 12:7 But to each one is given the manifestation of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος) to profit withal.

1Cor. 12:8 For to one is given through the Spirit ( διὰ τοῦ πνεύματος) the word of wisdom; and to another the word of knowledge, according to the same Spirit:

1Co 14:14 For if I pray in a tongue, my spirit (τὸ πνεῦμά) prayeth, but my understanding is unfruitful. (The Spirit prays, not my spirit prays)

1Co 14:15 What is it then? I will pray with the Spirit (τῷ πνεύματι) and I will pray with the understanding also: I will sing with the Spirit (τῷ πνεύματι) and I will sing with the understanding also.

1Co 15:45 So also it is written, The first man Adam became a living soul. The last Adam became a life-giving Spirit.

2Co 1:22 who also sealed us, and gave us the earnest of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος) in our hearts.

2Co 3:6 who also made us sufficient as ministers of a new covenant; not of the letter, but of the spirit: for the letter killeth, but the Spirit (τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα) giveth life.

2Co 3:8 how shall not rather the ministration of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος) be with glory?

2Co 3:17 Now the Lord is the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμά): and where the Spirit of the Lord (τὸ πνεῦμα κυρίου)  is, there is liberty.

2Co 3:18 But we all, with unveiled face beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are transformed into the same image from glory to glory, even as from the Lord the Spirit (κυρίου πνεύματος).

2Co 5:5 Now he that wrought us for this very thing is God, who gave unto us the earnest of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος).

Gal 3:2 This only would I learn from you, Received ye the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?

Gal 3:5 He therefore that supplieth to you the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα), and worketh miracles among you, doeth he it by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?

Gal 3:14 that upon the Gentiles might come the blessing of Abraham in Christ Jesus; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος) through faith.

Gal 4:6 And because ye are sons, God sent forth the Spirit of his Son (τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ) into our hearts, crying, Abba, Father.

Gal 5:17 For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος), and the Spirit (τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα) against the flesh; for these are contrary the one to the other; that ye may not do the things that ye would.

Gal 5:22 But the fruit of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματός) is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, kindness, goodness, faithfulness,

Gal 6:8 For he that soweth unto his own flesh shall of the flesh reap corruption; but he that soweth unto the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) shall of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος) reap eternal life.

Eph 1:13 in whom ye also, having heard the word of the truth, the gospel of your salvation—in whom, having also believed, ye were sealed with the Holy Spirit of promise, (τῷ πνεύματι τῆς ἐπαγγελίας τῷ ἁγίῳ) – The Spirit of Promise, the Holy One (see Chapter 25)

Eph 4:3 giving diligence to keep the unity of the Spirit (τοῦ πνεύματος) in the bond of peace.

Eph 6:17 And take the helmet of salvation, and the sword of the Spirit, (τοῦ πνεύματος), which is the word of God:

Php 1:19 For I know that this shall turn out to my salvation, through your supplication and the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ,

Col 2:5 For though I am absent in the flesh, yet am I with you in the Spirit (τῷ πνεύματι), joying and beholding your order, and the stedfastness of your faith in Christ.

1Th 5:19 Quench not the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα)

1Ti 4:1 But the Spirit (Τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα) saith expressly, that in later times some shall fall away from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits and doctrines of demons,

1Pe 1:11 searching what time or what manner of time the Spirit of Christ which was in them did point unto, when it testified beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and the glories that should follow them.

Rev 2:7 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) saith to the churches. To him that overcometh, to him will I give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the Paradise of God.

Rev 2:11 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) saith to the churches. He that overcometh shall not be hurt of the second death.

Rev 2:17 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) saith to the churches. To him that overcometh, to him will I give of the hidden manna, and I will give him a white stone, and upon the stone a new name written, which no one knoweth but he that receiveth it.

Rev 2:29 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) saith to the churches.

Rev 3:6 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) saith to the churches.

Rev 3:13 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) saith to the churches.

Rev 3:22 He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) saith to the churches.

Rev 14:13 And I heard a voice from heaven saying, Write, Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord from henceforth: yea, saith the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα), that they may rest from their labors; for their works follow with them.

Rev 22:17 And the Spirit (τὸ πνεῦμα) and the bride say, Come. And he that heareth, let him say, Come. And he that is athirst, let him come: he that will, let him take the water of life freely.