Appendix 4 – All Verses of the Spirit of Christ and God in the Old Testament

Here, we list all verses describing the spirit of ELOHIM, and spirit of Yihvah. We have excluded those that describe the breath, or wind of God, and the lying spirit of Yihvah in 1 Kings 22:24, and 2 Chronicles 18:23, which is described with masculine pronouns.

The Spirit of Christ in the Prophets

Spirit on Moses put on the Seventy Elders

Num 11:17 And I will come down and talk with thee there: and I will take of the Spirit which is upon thee, and will put it upon them; and they shall bear the burden of the people with thee, that thou bear it not thyself alone. (ONK – the-Spirit רוּחָא ; PAL – spirit of prophecy רוח נבואה; NEO – Holy Spirit, רוח קדשה )

Num 11:25 And the LORD came down in a cloud, and spake unto him, and took of the Spirit that was upon him, and gave it unto the seventy elders: and it came to pass, that, when the Spirit rested upon them, they prophesied, and did not cease. (ONK – the-spirit רוּחָא; spirit of prophecy רוּחַ נְבוּאָה; PAL – spirit of prophecy רוח נבואה; spirit of prophecy רוח נבואה; NEO – Holy Spirit, רוח קדשה’ Holy Spirit, רוח קדשה)

Num 11:26 But there remained two of the men in the camp, the name of the one was Eldad, and the name of the other Medad: and the Spirit she-rested upon them; and they were of them that were written but went not out unto the tabernacle: and they prophesied in the camp. (ONK – spirit of prophecy; PAL – spirit of prophecy; NEO –Holy Spirit, רוח קדשה; recension P, MS Paris 110; רוח קודשא, “Holy Spirit”; recension VNL, MSS Vatican Ebr. 440, רוחא קודש׳, “the Holy Spirit.”)

Num 11:29 And Moses said unto him, Enviest thou for my sake? would God that all the LORD’S people were prophets, and that the LORD would put his Spirit upon them! (ONK – His-spirit of prophecy; רוּחַ נְבוּאֲתֵיה; PAL – His-spirit of prophecy רוח נבותיה ; NEO – Holy Spirit, רוח קדשה)

The Spirit of Christ in Joshua

Num 27:18  And the LORD said unto Moses, Take thee Joshua the son of Nun, a man in whom is the spirit, and lay thine hand upon him; (ONK – spirit of prophecy; PAL – spirit of prophecy from before the Lord; NEO – holy spirit from before the Lord)

Recalling the Spirit God sent to Israel, but they rebelled – see Isaiah 63

Neh 9:20 Thou gavest also thy good spirit to instruct them, and withheldest not thy manna from their mouth, and gavest them water for their thirst. (No Targum for Nehemiah as it is written in Aramaic)

Neh 9:30 Yet many years didst thou forbear them, and testified against them by thy spirit in thy prophets: yet would they not give ear: therefore gavest thou them into the hand of the people of the lands. (No Targum for Nehemiah as it is written in Aramaic)

The Word in Job

Job 32:8 But there is a Spirit in man: and the inspiration of the Almighty giveth them understanding. (Targum – “In truth, it is the spirit of inspiration in a human being, and the Word of the Almighty, (which) makes them understand.”)

The Holy Spirit in the Psalms

Psa 51:11 Cast me not away from thy presence; and take not thy holy spirit from me. (Targum – holy spirit of prophecy)

Psa 51:12 Restore unto me the joy of thy salvation; and uphold me with thy free spirit. (Targum – spirit of prophecy)

Psa 104:30  Thou sendest forth thy spirit, they are created: and thou renewest the face of the earth. (Targum – “You will send out your Holy Spirit and they are created; and you will make new the surface of the earth.”)

Psa 143:10 Teach me to do thy will; for thou art my God: thy Spirit is good; lead me into the land of uprightness. (Targum – “Teach me to do your will, for you are my God; your good Holy Spirit will guide me in the land correctly.”)

Called “the Word” in Targum Jonathan

Isa 30:1 Woe to the rebellious children, saith the LORD, that take counsel, but not of me; and that cover with a covering, but not of My Spirit, that they may add sin to sin: (TJ – “not of My Word”)

Isa 34:16 Seek ye out of the book of the LORD, and read: no one of these shall fail, none shall want her mate: for my mouth it hath commanded, and His Spirit it hath gathered them. (TJ – “His Word has gathered them”)

Isa 48:16 Come ye near unto me, hear ye this; I have not spoken in secret from the beginning; from the time that it was, there am I: and now the Lord GOD, and His Spirit, hath sent me. (TJ – “the Lord GOD, and His Word has sent me”)

Isa 63:10 But they rebelled, and vexed his Holy Spirit: therefore he was turned to be their enemy, and he fought against them. (TJ – “the Word of His holy prophets,” מֵימַר נְבִיֵי קֻדשֵיה)

Isa 63:11 Then he remembered the days of old, Moses, and his people, saying, Where is he that brought them up out of the sea with the shepherd of his flock? where is he that put his Holy Spirit within him? (TJ – “the Word of His holy prophets,” מֵימַר נְבִיֵי קוּדשֵיה)

They follow the Lamb wherever He goes – Rev 14 (called “the Spirit” in the Targum)

Eze 1:12 And they went every one straight forward: whither the spirit was to go, they went; and they turned not when they went.

Eze 1:20 Whithersoever the spirit was to go, they went, thither was their spirit to go; and the wheels were lifted up over against them: for the spirit of the living creature was in the wheels.

Taken up by spirit (called “the Spirit” in the Targum)

Eze 2:2 And the spirit she-entered into me when he spake unto me, and set me upon my feet, that I heard him that spake unto me.

Eze 3:12 Then the spirit she-took me up, and I heard behind me a voice of a great rushing, saying, Blessed be the glory of the LORD from his place

Eze 3:14 So the spirit she-lifted me up, and took me away, and I went in bitterness, in the heat of my spirit; but the hand of the LORD was strong upon me.

Eze 3:24 Then the spirit she-entered into me, and set me upon my feet, and spake with me, and said unto me, Go, shut thyself within thine house.

Eze 8:3 And he put forth the form of an hand, and took me by a lock of mine head; and the spirit she-lifted me up between the earth and the heaven, and brought me in the visions of God to Jerusalem, to the door of the inner gate that looketh toward the north; where was the seat of the image of jealousy, which provoketh to jealousy.

Eze 10:17 When they stood, these stood; and when they were lifted up, these lifted up themselves also: for the spirit of the living creature was in them.

Eze 11:1 Moreover the spirit she-lifted me up, and brought me unto the east gate of the LORD’S house, which looketh eastward: and behold at the door of the gate five and twenty men; among whom I saw Jaazaniah the son of Azur, and Pelatiah the son of Benaiah, princes of the people.

Eze 11:24  Afterwards the spirit she-took me up, and brought me in a vision by the Spirit of God into Chaldea, to them of the captivity. So the vision that I had seen went up from me.

Eze 43:5 So the spirit she-took me up, and brought me into the inner court; and, behold, the glory of the LORD filled the house.

Called “the Word” in Targum Jonathan

Hag 2:5 According to the word that I covenanted with you when ye came out of Egypt, so my spirit she-remaineth among you: fear ye not. (TJ – “My Word is your helper … and my prophets are teaching” – verse 4 and 5)

Zec 4:6 Then he answered and spake unto me, saying, This is the word of the LORD unto Zerubbabel, saying, Not by might, nor by power, but by my spirit, saith the LORD of hosts. (TJ – “by My Word”)

Zec 7:12 Yea, they made their hearts as an adamant stone, lest they should hear the law, and the words which the LORD of hosts hath sent in his spirit by the former prophets: therefore came a great wrath from the LORD of hosts. (TJ – “sent by His Word”)

The Spirit of God

God as Spirit

The Spirit of Yihvah will carry Elijah away, compare with 2 Kings 2:16

1Ki 18:12 And it shall come to pass, as soon as I am gone from thee, that the Spirit of the LORD He-shall carry thee whither I know not; and so when I come and tell Ahab, and he cannot find thee, he shall slay me: but I thy servant fear the LORD from my youth. (TJ – “the spirit from before the Lord.” Here, the Targum uses the determined form to describe the Spirit of Yihvah as a being.  A variant reading of מִן קְָדָם יוי in Sperberg’s apparatus is דייי. The expression “from before” was added by copyists, as discussed in Chapter 9.))

The Spirit of Yihvah carries Elijah away – called the Lord in verse 5

2Ki 2:16 And they said unto him, Behold now, there be with thy servants fifty strong men; let them go, we pray thee, and seek thy master: lest peradventure the Spirit of the LORD He-hath taken him up, and cast him upon some mountain, or into some valley. And he said, Ye shall not send. (TJ – “the spirit from before the Lord.” See comments under 1Ki 18:12.)

Psa 139:7  Whither shall I go from thy spirit? or whither shall I flee from thy presence? (Targum – “Where will I go from the presence of your storm-wind? And where shall I flee from your presence?)

Isa 40:13  Who hath directed the Spirit of the LORD, or being his counsellor hath taught him? (TJ – “Who was directed the Holy Spirit in the mouth of all the prophets, is it not the LORD?”)

The Spirit of God as the Spirit of the Breath of Life

Gen 1:2  And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. (ONK – “and breath from before the Lord blew upon the face of the waters”; PAL“the Spirit of mercies from before the Lord breathed upon the face of the waters”; NEO“a spirit of mercy from before the Lord was blowing over the surface of the waters”)

Gen 6:3  And the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years. (ONK – “This evil generation shall not stand before me forever”; PAL – “Have I not imparted My Holy Spirit to them that they may work good works?”; NEO – “Behold, I have put my spirit in the sons of man”)

Job 26:13 By his spirit he hath garnished the heavens; his hand hath formed the crooked serpent. (Targum – “by the breath of His mouth”)

 Job 27:3  All the while my breath is in me, and the spirit of God is in my nostrils; (Targum – no change)

Job 33:4  The spirit of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given me life. (Targum – “the spirit of God has made me, and the Word of Almighty sustains me”)

Job 34:14  If he set his heart upon man, if he gather unto himself his spirit and his breath; (Targum – no change)

Isa 40:7  The grass withereth, the flower fadeth: because the spirit of the LORD bloweth upon it: surely the people is grass. (TJ – no change)

Isa 42:5  Thus saith God the LORD, he that created the heavens, and stretched them out; he that spread forth the earth, and that which cometh out of it; he that giveth breath unto the people upon it, and spirit to them that walk therein: (TJ – no change)

Isa 63:14   As a beast goes down into the valley, And the Spirit of the LORD causes him to rest, So You lead Your people, To make Yourself a glorious name (TJ – compares a beast to people and calls the Spirit of Yihvah, the Word)

The Spirit of God as the Spirit of Wisdom

Gen 41:38-39 And Pharaoh said unto his servants, Can we find such a one as this is, a man in whom the spirit of God is? … there is no one as discerning and wise as you. (ONK – “spirit of prophecy from before the Lord”; PAL – “the spirit of prophecy from the Lord”; NEO – “a holy spirit from before the Lord”)

Exo 28:3  And thou shalt speak unto all that are wise hearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they may make Aaron’s garments to consecrate him, that he may minister unto me in the priest’s office. (ONK – “the spirit of wisdom” PAL – “the spirit of wisdom”; NEO – “the spirit of wisdom”)

Exo 31:3  And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship (ONK – “spirit of wisdom from before the Lord” or “spirit of prophecy from before the Lord,” there are two readings of this text; NEO – “the Spirit of holiness from before the Lord, in wisdom …”; NEO – “the Spirit of holiness from before the Lord, in wisdom …”;)

Exo 35:31  And he hath filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship; (ONK – “spirit of wisdom from before the Lord” or “spirit of prophecy from before the Lord,” there are two readings of this text; PAL – “the spirit of prophecy from before the Lord, in wisdom … ”; NEO – “the spirit of holiness from before the Lord, in wisdom …” )

Deut 34:9  And Joshua the son of Nun was full of the spirit of wisdom; for Moses had laid his hands upon him: and the children of Israel hearkened unto him, and did as the LORD commanded Moses. (ONK – the spirit of wisdom; PAL – the spirit of wisdom; NEO – the spirit of wisdom)

As the future anointing – the holy spirit on Christ

Isa 11:2  And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD; (TJ – “the spirit of prophecy from before the Lord, the spirit of wisdom …” This is the reading of the authorized text of the Synagogue, First and Second Rabbinic Bibles, the Antwerp Polyglot, Reuchlinianus, and Ms. Jews’ College)

The Spirit of God as the Spirit of Prophecy, or Power

The Spirit of God identified as the Hand of Yihvah

1Ki 18:46 Then the hand of the LORD came upon Elijah; and he girded up his loins and ran ahead of Ahab to the entrance of Jezreel. (TJ – “a spirit of power from before the Lord was with Elijah”)

2Ki 3:15 Then it happened that when the musician played, the hand of the Lord came upon him (TJ – “a spirit of prophecy from before the Lord dwelt on him”) 

Eze 1:3 The Word of the Lord came expressly to Ezekiel, the priest, the son of Buzi, in the land of the Chaldeans by the river Chabar, and the hand of the Lord was upon him there. (TJ – “a spirit of prophecy from before the Lord dwelt on him”)

Eze 3:14 So the spirit lifted me up and took me away, and I went in bitterness, in the heat of my spirit; but the hand of the LORD was strong upon me. (TJ – “by the strength of my spirit, and a prophecy from before the Lord overwhelmed me”)

Eze 3:22   Then the hand of the LORD was upon me there, and He said to me, “Arise, go out into the plain, and there I shall talk with you.” (TJ – “The spirit of prophecy from before the Lord dwelt on me”)

Eze 33:22   Now the hand of the LORD had been upon me the evening before the man came who had escaped. And He had opened my mouth; so when he came to me in the morning, my mouth was opened, and I was no longer mute. (TJ – “a prophecy from before the Lord had been with me”)

Eze 37:1 The hand of the LORD came upon me and brought me out in the spirit of the LORD, and set me down in the midst of the valley; and it was full of bones. (TJ – “the spirit of prophecy from before the Lord dwelt on me”)

Eze 40:1 In the twenty-fifth year of our captivity, at the beginning of the year, on the tenth day of the month, in the fourteenth year after the city was captured, on the very same day the hand of the LORD was upon me; and He took me there. (TJ – “the spirit of prophecy from before the Lord dwelt on me”)

Spirit on Balaam

Num 24:2 And Balaam lifted up his eyes, and he saw Israel abiding in his tents according to their tribes; and the spirit of God she-came upon him. (ONK – “and dwelt the spirit of prophecy from before the Lord”; PAL – “dwelt the spirit of prophecy from before the Lord”; NEO – “a holy spirit from before the Lord”)

Spirit of Yihvah on Othniel

Jdg 3:10 And the spirit of the LORD she-came upon him, and he judged Israel, and went out to war: and the LORD delivered Chushanrishathaim king of Mesopotamia into his hand; and his hand prevailed against Chushanrishathaim. (TJ – “and dwelt the spirit of prophecy from before the Lord”)

Spirit of Yihvah on Gideon

Jdg 6:34 But the spirit of the LORD she-came upon Gideon, and he blew a trumpet; and Abiezer was gathered after him. (TJ – “the spirit of power from before the Lord clothed Gideon”)

Spirit of Yihvah on Jephthah

Jdg 11:29 Then the spirit of the LORD she-came upon Jephthah, and he passed over Gilead, and Manasseh, and passed over Mizpeh of Gilead, and from Mizpeh of Gilead he passed over unto the children of Ammon. (TJ – “a spirit of power from before the Lord”)

Spirit of Yihvah on Samson

Jdg 13:25 And the spirit of the LORD she-began to move him at times in the camp of Dan between Zorah and Eshtaol. (TJ – “a spirit of power from before the Lord”)

Jdg 14:6 And the spirit of the LORD she-came mightily upon him, and he rent him as he would have rent a kid, and he had nothing in his hand: but he told not his father or his mother what he had done. (TJ – “a spirit of power from before the Lord”)

Jdg 14:19 And the spirit of the LORD she-came upon him, and he went down to Ashkelon, and slew thirty men of them, and took their spoil, and gave change of garments unto them which expounded the riddle. And his anger was kindled, and he went up to his father’s house. (TJ – “a spirit of power from before the Lord”)

Jdg 15:14 And when he came unto Lehi, the Philistines shouted against him: and the spirit of the LORD she-came mightily upon him, and the cords that were upon his arms became as flax that was burnt with fire, and his bands loosed from off his hands. (TJ – “a spirit of power from before the Lord”)

Spirit of ELOHIM on Saul

1Sa 10:6 And the spirit of the LORD she-will come upon thee, and thou shalt prophesy with them, and shalt be turned into another man. (TJ – “the spirit of prophecy from before the Lord”)

1Sa 10:10 And when they came thither to the hill, behold, a company of prophets met him; and the spirit of God she-came upon him, and he prophesied among them. (TJ – “the spirit of prophecy from before the Lord”)

1Sa 11:6 And the spirit of God she-came upon Saul when he heard those tidings, and his anger was kindled greatly. (TJ – “a mighty spirit from before the Lord”)

David is anointed “and she-came the spirit of Yihvah upon Him…”

1Sa 16:13 Then Samuel took the horn of oil, and anointed him in the midst of his brethren: and the spirit of the LORD she-came upon David from that day forward. So Samuel rose up, and went to Ramah. (TJ – “a spirit of power from before the Lord”)

Spirit of ELOHIM on Saul and his messengers

1Sa 19:20 And Saul sent messengers to take David: and when they saw the company of the prophets prophesying, and Samuel standing as appointed over them, the spirit of God she-was upon the messengers of Saul, and they also prophesied. (TJ – “a spirit of prophecy from before the Lord”)

1Sa 19:23 And he went thither to Naioth in Ramah: and the spirit of God she-was upon him also, and he went on, and prophesied, until he came to Naioth in Ramah. (TJ – “that spirit of prophecy from before the Lord”)

David’s Final Speech

2Sa 23:2  The Spirit of the LORD He-spake by me, and his word was in my tongue. (TJ – “The spirit of prophecy from before the Lord”)

Spirit prophesies to David

1Ch 12:18 Then the spirit she-came upon Amasai, who was chief of the captains, and he said, Thine are we, David, and on thy side, thou son of Jesse: peace, peace be unto thee, and peace be to thine helpers; for thy God helpeth thee. Then David received them, and made them captains of the band. (Targum – “a powerful spirit” vs. 19)

Spirit of ELOHIM on Azariah

2Ch 15:1 And the spirit of God she-came upon Azariah the son of Oded: (TJ – “the spirit of prophecy from before the Lord”)

Spirit of Yihvah on congregation

2Ch 20:14 Then upon Jahaziel the son of Zechariah, the son of Benaiah, the son of Jeiel, the son of Mattaniah, a Levite of the sons of Asaph, she-came the spirit of the LORD in the midst of the congregation; (TJ – “the spirit of prophecy from before the Lord”)

Spirit of ELOHIM on Zechariah

2Ch 24:20 And the spirit of God she-came upon Zechariah the son of Jehoiada the priest, which stood above the people, and said unto them, Thus saith God, Why transgress ye the commandments of the LORD, that ye cannot prosper? because ye have forsaken the LORD, he hath also forsaken you. (TJ – “the spirit of prophecy from before the Lord”)

Spirit of Yihvah/ELOHIM on Ezekiel

Eze 11:5 And the spirit of the LORD she-fell upon me, and He-said unto me, Speak; Thus saith the LORD; Thus have ye said, O house of Israel: for I know the things that come into your mind, every one of them. (TJ – The spirit of prophecy from before the Lord”)

Eze 11:24 Then spirit lifted me up and brought me in a vision by spirit of ELOHIM in Chaldea. (TJ – “by the spirit of prophecy from before the Lord that dwelt on me”)

Eze 37:1 The hand of the LORD came upon me and brought me out in spirit of the LORD. (TJ – “by means of the spirit of prophecy from before the Lord that dwelt on me.”

Spirit of Yihvah in Micah

Mic 2:7  Is the Spirit of Yihvah restricted? (TJ – “Is the word from before the Lord shortened?)

Mic 3:7  The seers shall be ashamed … for there is no answer from God. (TJ – “there is no spirit of prophecy from the Lord in them”)

Mic 3:8  But truly I am full of power by the spirit of the LORD, and of judgment, and of might, to declare unto Jacob his transgression, and to Israel his sin. (TJ – “The spirit of prophecy from the Lord”)

The Spirit of God as the future holy spirit

Isa 4:4  When the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the midst thereof by the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of burning. (TJ – another meaning)

Isa 32:15  Until the spirit be poured upon us from on high, and the wilderness be a fruitful field, and the fruitful field be counted for a forest. (TJ – “refreshing from the Face of Him” – from Christ, Acts 2:33)

Isa 42:1 Behold, my servant, whom I uphold; my chosen, in whom my soul delighteth: I have put my Spirit upon him; he will bring forth justice to the Gentiles. (TJ – “My holy spirit”)

Isa 44:3  For I will pour water upon him that is thirsty, and floods upon the dry ground: I will pour my spirit upon thy seed, and my blessing upon thine offspring: (TJ – “I will give My holy spirit”)

Isa 59:21  As for me, this is my covenant with them, saith the LORD; My spirit that is upon thee, (TJ – “My holy spirit”)

Isa 61:1  The spirit of the Lord GOD is upon me; because the LORD hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek; he hath sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to them that are bound; (TJ – “the spirit of prophecy before the Lord”)

Eze 1:21 When those went, these went; and when those stood, these stood; and when those were lifted up from the earth, the wheels were lifted up over against them: for spirit of the living creature was in the wheels. (TJ – puts the interpretation in the current day, calling it “a spirit like that of the living creatures”)

Eze 11:19  And I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit within you; and I will take the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them an heart of flesh: (TJ – “faithful spirit”)

Eze 36:26  A new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you: and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an heart of flesh. (TJ – “faithful spirit”)

Eze 36:27  And I will put my spirit within you, and cause you to walk in my statutes, and ye shall keep my judgments, and do them (TJ – “My holy spirit”)

Eze 37:14  And shall put my spirit in you, and ye shall live, and I shall place you in your own land: then shall ye know that I the LORD have spoken it, and performed it, saith the LORD. (TJ “I will put My Spirit into you … I have decreed it by My Memra”)

Eze 39:29  Neither will I hide my face any more from them: for I have poured out my spirit upon the house of Israel, saith the Lord GOD. (TJ – “I have poured out My holy spirit”)

Joe 2:28  And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions: (TJ – “My holy spirit” Joel 3:1)

Joe 2:29  And also upon the servants and upon the handmaids in those days will I pour out my spirit. (TJ – “My holy spirit” Joel 3:2)

Zec 6:8  Then cried he upon me, and spake unto me, saying, Behold, these that go toward the north country have quieted my spirit in the north country. (TJ – “do My pleasure”)

Zec 12:10  And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplications:. (TJ – “the Spirit of Mercy and Compassion” ie, “Spirit of Grace”)

The Spirit of Elijah

2Ki 2:15 And when the sons of the prophets which were to view at Jericho saw him, they said, The Spirit of Elijah she-doth rest on Elisha. And they came to meet him, and bowed themselves to the ground before him. (TJ – “the Spirit of Elijah”)